Summary for Chapter 10: Quality Control

This chapter is about the inspection process and how it is important to businesses. This includes how quality control helps companies keep certain aspects of their business up to speed with consumers' standards. Also, this chapter covers the topic of inspections and where and how inspections need to be implemented in order to check on businesses as well as be cost-effective. Moreover that it tells us that it is variability during the process and how it is. According to variation, The used of different ways (also shows in this chapter) to get results. During the process, we are controlling and improving the subject by variety charts.

Quality control is a process that evaluates output relative to a standard and takes corrective action when output doesn't meet these predetermined standards. Therefore, quality control in relation to customers would be the continuous act of making sure products, designed and manufactured, are produced to meet and exceed the needs of customers. The purpose of quality control is to make sure that certain processes are performing up to a company's set standards. The statistical process control tries to correct processes that are not in line with the predetermined limits. Lastly, process capability studies the output standards to make sure they are up to specifications.

Some key issues are where to inspect and how to inspect.

Inspections can be considered an appraisal technique that compares goods or services to a standard. Inspection should not be eliminated because it is a vital aspect of quality control and service operations.

Inspection can occur at 3 points:
1. Before production - to make sure inputs are acceptable (involves acceptance sampling procedures)
2. During production - to make sure conversion of inputs into outputs is proceeding in acceptable manner (involves process control)
3. After production - to make final verification of goods (involves acceptance sampling procedures)

Inspection involves the following decisions when it comes to production, including:
- How much to inspect?
- How often to inspect?
- When to inspect?
- What to inspect (either a centralized or on-site location)?
- Whether to inspect attributes or variables?

How much to inspect and how often:
-
Low-cost, high-volume items require little inspection because the cost associated with passing a defect is low and the processes that produce the items are normally very reliable.
- High-cost, low-volume items require more inspection because defects are more costly, automated inspection is often implemented.
- Most inspection processes lie somewhere between these two

There are three phases of quality assurance, ranking from least to most progressive:
1) Acceptance sampling- Inspection before & after production.
2) Process control - Inspection & corrective action during production.
3) Continuous improvement. Quality is built into the process. Most progressive phase of quality assurance.

Inspection Process:
Inspection increases production/service costs, so it is important to be efficient in your inspection efforts and only allocate inspection at points that maximize effectiveness. Some of these points include:
  1. Raw materials & Purchased Parts
  2. Finished Products
  3. Prior to Large Investments
  4. Prior to Irreversible Changes
  5. Before a covering process

Sampling and corrective action are only part of the control process. Effective control requires the following steps: define, measure, compare, evaluate, correct, and monitor. You must define in detail what it is that is to be controlled and decide what can and cannot be measured. There must be a level of comparison to use for the different measurements. This should relate to the level of quality being sought. The company also must establish a definition of what is “out of control”. The main task of quality control is to distinguish random from nonrandom variability, in which nonrandom variability means that a process is out of control. When a process is determined to be out of control, corrective action must take place; which includes uncovering the cause of nonrandom variability. Once corrected, one must monitor the results to confirm that the process has been fixed. A sufficient amount of time must be put into this in order to have solid confirmation. Basically, control is achieved by checking a portion of the goods or services, comparing the results to a predetermined standard, evaluating departures from the standard, taking corrective actions when necessary, and following up to ensure that problems have been corrected.


Quality Control, discusses the processes that businesses use for controlling the quality of their products. Many companies rely on inspection and process control to achieve a quality product. Inspection is the examination of outputs of a process to determine whether it is acceptable amongst their standards. This chapter also discusses when and where in the process companies should inspect. In most cases, the key issues in the inspection process include where to inspect in the process, how often to inspect, and whether to inspect on-site or in a laboratory. The statistical process is also used to evaluate the output of a process and to determine if it is statistically acceptable. The main tool of the statistical process are control charts and run tests. Process capability studies are also used to determine if the output of the process will satisfy specifications. Process capability can provide valuable information to managers in terms of reducing costs and avoiding problems created by generating output that is not within specifications or even needed.

The section of Inspection deals with the process of deciding at which point in time in production should inspection occur and how much time and money should be spent. There are several times inspection can occur such as, before production, during production, or after production. The most important factor is deciding at which point/points inspection is economically better for the company. Also, the main focus of inspection is to satisfy the end users of the item by keeping inspections high but maintaining inspection costs low.

This chapter highlights the process of quality control, which is used to assure that processes are performing in an acceptable manner, in a operational management environment. The quality control process takes corrective action when output doesn't meet standards. The three key phases of quality assurance are listed below:

  • Inputs - acceptance sampling
  • Transformation - process control
  • Outputs - acceptance sampling

Quality control also takes a close look into statistical process control.

The Statistical Process control is part of the quality control process that discovers departures from randomness and variation in the process. This is measured generally by a control chart or a run test. There are two types of attribute control charts, the p-chart and the c-chart. The p-chart is a control chart for attributes, used to monitor the proportion of defective items in a process. The c-chart is a control chart for attributes, used to monitor the number of defects per unit.

A Run Test is a test for patterns in a sequence. Different patterns can be accredited as a trend, cycle, bias, mean shift, or too much dispersion. A run can be noted as a sequence of observations with a certain characteristic. There are two determined run tests which include the up/down test and the median test.

Process Capability is also highlighted in Chapter 10. Process capability determines whether or not the process put forth is capable of producing output that is within an acceptable range. There are three commonly used terms that refer to the variability of process output:

· Specifications/tolerance - established by engineering design or customer requirements. They indicate a range of values in which individual units of output must fall in order to be acceptable
·Control limits - statistical limits that neglect the extent to which sample statistics such as means and ranges can vary due to randomness alone
· Process variability - reflects the natural or inherent variability in a process. It is measured in terms of the process standard deviation

There are also many statistical measures of quality control including Statistical Process Control (Helps us decide if a process is “in control” or if corrective action is needed), Sampling (Periodically taking samples of process output and computing sample statistics), Control Charts (A time ordered plot of representative sample statistics obtained from an ongoing process, used to distinguish between random and nonrandom variability), Run Tests (A test for patterns in a sequence), and Process Capability (Determining if the process is capable of producing output that is within an acceptable range). These measures help detect variations in the manufacturing process, and whether the variation is random (common cause) or assignable (special cause).


Inspection is an appraisal activity that compares goods or services. In this chapter, it talks about four basic issues of inspection:
  • How much to inspect and how often
  • At what points in the process inspection should occur
  • Whether to inspect in a centralized or on-site location
  • Whether to inspect attributes
Inspection can occur at three points: before production, during production, and after production. The logic of checking before the production is to make user that inputs are acceptable. The logic behind checking during production is to make use that the conversion of inputs into outputs is proceeding in an acceptable manner. Finally, the logic of checking after production is to verify the output before passing it on to customers.
Low cost, high volume items usually have large cost but little inspection, and high cost low volume items usually have low cost but high inspection. Inspection also occurs at three part: before production, during production, and after production.
Statistical process control, which is used to evaluate process output to decide if a process is in control or acceptable.
The two basic tools are used in quality control are control charts and run tests:
  1. Control charts is used for time-ordered and it's between random samples and nonrandom samples.
  2. Run tests is a test for patterns in a sequence; the book talked about some nonrandom patterns, like trend, cycles, bias, mean shift, and too much dispersion.

1) Items such as paper clips, roofing nails, and wooden pencils are examples of:
A. Low-cost, High-volume Products
B. High-cost, Low volume Products
C. Low-cost, Low volume Products
D. High-cost, High volume Products
E. None of the above
Answer A, pg 459

2) Which of the following determines the amount of inspection that will be needed?
A. Costs of inspection
B. Expected costs of passing defective items
C. Cost of materials
D. Time needed to complete product
E. A and B
Answer E, pg 459

3) At what point in the process should inspection not occur?
A. After production
B. Before production
C. During production
D. At the retailer
E. None of the above
Answer D, pg 458

4) Which of the following is NOT a typical point of inspection?
A. Raw materials and purchased parts
B. After a costly operation
C. Before a covering process
D. Before an irreversible process
E. All of the above are inspection points.
Answer B, pg 460

5) The main purpose of an inspection is to
A. Increase Production
B. Improve marketability
C. Reduce costs of production
D. Compare Goods or services to a standard
E. None of the above
Answer D, pg 458

6) Typical inspection points in manufacturing:
A) Raw materials and purchased parts
B) Finished Products
C) Before a costly operation
D) Before a covering process
E). All of the above
Answer : E pg 460

8) Control Limits are :
A) established by engineering design or customer requirements
B) the natural or inherent variability in a process measured in terms of the process standard deviation
C) statistical limits that reflect that extent to which sample statistics such as means and ranges can vary due to randomness alone.
D) Direct links between specifications and process variability
E) none of the above
Answer; C pg 480

9) Which of the following statements is true regarding limitations of capability indexes :
A) The process is stable every time
B) The process output may not be normally distributed, in which case inferences about the fraction of output that isn't acceptable will be incorrect.
C) The process is centered and the Cp is used, giving a correct result.
D) none of the above
E). All of the above
Answer : B pg 485

10) You use a c-chart when :
A) observations can be placed into one of two categories. Examples include times that can be classified as good or bad
B) only the number of occurrences per unit of measure can be counted, non occurrences cannot be counted
C) the data consist of multiple sampling of n observations each
d. occurrences per unit pass or fail
E) All of the above
Answer: B pg 472

11) Which of the following businesses require inspections?
a. Hotels
b. Grocery stores
c. Doctor's offices
d. Fast food restaurants
e. All of the above
Answer: e. All of the above - All businesses have inspection points, some may vary in the type and amount of inspections

12) Which type of inspection involves acceptance sampling procedures?
a. Before production
b. During production
c. After production
d. a and b
e. a and c
Answer: e. a and c - During production requires process control

13) What is the central limit theorem?
a. points out variation that can not be identified
b. says when a process is not controlled
c. says that distribution of sample averages tends to be normal
d. helps us measure error
e. Both a and d
Answer: c. says that distribution of sample averages tends to be normal (pg. 464)

14) Which of the following is not required as a step to be effective in the control process?
a. Define
b. Draw
c. Compare
d. Evaluate
e. Confirm
Answer: b. Draw - (pg. 465 displays the steps in the process)

15) What helps distinguish between random and nonrandom variation?
a. Pie Charts
b. Control charts
c. Variable chart
d. Random and nonrandom chart
e. None of the above
Answer: b. Control charts - (pg. 465) plot of sample statistics, used to distinguish between random and nonrandom variation.

16) There is a measure in terms of the process standard deviation. What reflects the natural or inherent variability in a process?
a. specifications
b. control limits
c. process variability
d. process capability
e. quality control
Answer: c. Process variability (pg. 480)

17) Which is NOT an example of nonrandom patterns in control chart plots?
a. Trend
b. Run
c. Too much dispersion
d. Bias
e. Mean Shift
Answer: b. Run (pg. 476) figure 10.11

18) When nonrandom variations are not present, this is like concluding that a process is in control when it is not. this is an example of what?
a. Type I error
b. Type II error
c. Control limits
d. Mean control chart
e. Attributes
Answer: b. Type II error (pg. 467)

19) In a process output, what is a variation which cause can be identified?
a. Sampling distribution
b. central limit theorem
c. control process
d. assignable variation
e. none of these
Answer: d. Assignable variation (pg. 464)

20) Which of the following is not a Centralized Inspection?
a. Performing medical tests
b. Analyzing food samples
c. Testing metals for hardness
d. Running viscosity tests on lubricants
e. Inspecting a ship for cracks
Answer: e. Inspecting the hull of a ship for cracks (pg. 462)

21) What is the Random telling us :

a) Natural variation in the output of a process, created by countless minor factors.

b) Statistical evaluation of the output process.

c) A variation whose cause can be identified.

d) A theoretical distribution of sample statistics

e) None of the above

Answer: A Pg 463

22) Too many observations on one side of the center in a control chart plot are called:

a) a trend

b) a cycle

c) bias

d) mean shift

e) lob sided

Answer C pg 476

23) Which of the following refer to Genichi Taguchi:

a) Is a Japanese quality expert.

b) Holds a nontraditional view of what constitutes poor quality

c) Created the Taguchi Cost Function

d) All of the above

e) None of the above

Answer D Pg 484

24) Which one is NOT involved in improving process capability?

a) simplify

b) standardize

c) make mistake-proof

d) downgrade equipment

e) automate

Answer D pg 484


25) Managers use statistical process control
a) To evaluate the inputs of a process.
b) To evaluate the output of a process.
c) To evaluates the quality of a process.
d) To evaluate the significance of a process.
e) To evaluate the defects of a process.
Answer: b ( pg. 463)

26) What is a control chart?
a) It is a random variable of a sample statistic.
b) Used to monitor central tendency
c) is used to determine if a process is performing adequately.
d) It is a time-ordered plot of a sample statistic.
e) It is a nonrandom variable of a sample statistic.
Answer: d (pg. 465)

17) The c-chart and p-chart are counted of attributes generate data, so what is a p-chart used for?
a) Used to monitor process disruption.
b) Used to monitor the central tendency of a process.
c) Used to distinguish between random and nonrandom variability.
d) Used to monitor the proportion of defective items generated by a process.
e) Used to monitor the number of defects per unit
Answer: d (pg. 472)

28) How can you improve process capability?
a) Simplify the process.
b) Standardize the process.
c) Upgrade the equipment.
d) All of the above.
e) None of the above
Answer: d (pg. 473)

29) Low-cost, high volume items require:
a) Low inspection because the cost associated with passing defective items is quite low.
b) High inspection because of the high volume of production.
c) Low inspection because the production is usually highly reliable.
d) High inspection because passing defective products require extensive inspections later on.
e) Only A and C
(answer is d pg 449)

30)100 percent Inspection outweighs:
a). Manner of testing
b). Interruptions of a process
c) Cost of inspection
d). Delaying inspection
e) None of the above
(Answer e, page 449)

31) Typical Inspection points are:
a) After covering process.
b) After a costly operation
c) After irreversible operation
d) After purchasing raw materials
e) None of the above
(Answer e, page 450)

32) Favoring On site inspections include:
a) avoidance of introduction to extraneous factors
b) Quicker choice
c) favorable environment
d)Never Favor on site inspections
e) Only A & B
(answer D, page 252)

33) What does SPC stands for?

a. Statistical process control
b. Sampling Process Chart
c. Structured process control
d. Standard Process Control

e. None of the above
(pg 463)

34) What is quality control?
a. Appraisal of goods or services

b. Process that evaluates output relative to a standard and takes corrective action when output doesn’t meet standards c. Statistical evaluation of the output of a process
d. A time-ordered plot of sample statistics, used to distinguished between random and nonrandom variability
e. When a product or service conforms to specifications
(pg. 457)

35) Which of the following formulas are used when computing control limits?
a. UCL
b. LCL

c. Both a and b
d. Neither a and b
e. None of the above
pg 466

35) A range of acceptable values established by engineering design or customer requirements are called:
a. Control limits
b. Process capability
c. Variables
d. Attributes

e. Specifications
pg. 480

Questions
36) All of the following are characteristics of on-site inspection EXCEPT: p.g. 463
A) Quicker decisions are rendered
B) Quality at the Source
C) More specialized testing equipment
D) Avoid introduction of extraneous factors
E) Quality of conformance

Answer - C

37) A Control Chart contains: p.g. 465-466

A) Upper and lower control limits that define the range of acceptable variation
B) Used to distinguish between random and nonrandom variability
C) A time ordered plot of representative sample statistics obtained from an ongoing process
D) Less appropriate for "lumpy demand" items because inventory remnants often result
E) All of the above except D

Answer - E

38) Type II error can is associated with: p.g. 467

A) Manufacturers Risk
B) Consumers Risk

C) Quality built into the process
D) Costly Operation
E) Quality Risk

Answer - B

39) In the phases of quality assurance, during which phase does Inspection and Corrective Action take place? p.g. 458

A) Acceptance Sampling
B) Continuous Improvement
C) Process Control
D) Operate or Don't Operate
E) Control limits

Answer - C

40) There are several risks of using capability measures which include all EXCEPT: p.g. 485
A) The process may not be stable
B) The process output may not be normally distributed
C) The process not centered but Cp is used

D) The process is automated
E) None of above


Answer - D

41) Which of the following is not an issue covered by inspection? p.g. 458
A. How much to inspect and how often
B. At what points in the process to inspect
C. Whether to inspect in a centralized or on-site location
D. Helps us to decide if a process is “in control” or if corrective action is needed
E. All of above is an issue covered by inspection

Answer: D – An issue addressed by Statistical Process Control

42) What is the Central Limit Theorem? p.g. 464
A. The distribution of sample averages tends to be normal regardless of the shape of the process distribution (Revise)
B. A theoretical distribution that describes the random variability of sample statistics
C. Upper and lower control limits
D. Establish preliminary control limits
E. Monitor the proportion of defective items in a process

Answer: A

43) What type of error concludes that there is a manufacture’s risk?
A. Process Variability
B. Non-random Patters
C. Type I Error
D. Type II Error
E. Type III Error

Answer: C - Pg 466-467

44) What is Acceptance Sampling?
A. Inspection and corrective action during production
B. Inspection before/after production
C. Quality built into the process
D. Effects on cost and level of disruption
E. The quality of sampling

Answer: B - Pg 458-463

45) What is not an advantage of On-Site Inspection? p.g. 462-463
A. Quicker decisions are rendered
B. Avoid introduction of extraneous factors
C. Quality at the source
D. Specialized tests that may best be completed in a lab
E. All of above

Answer: D

1. Regarding run tests, which of the following are non-random patterns? (page 476)
a. Trend, cycles
b. bias
c. mean shift
d. too much dispersion
e. all of the above


2. Inspection can occur at what points?
(page 458)
a. before production
b.during production
c.after production
d. only before and after production
e. a, b, c, changed question

3. In the control process, effective control requires several steps, which steps comes after "evaluate"? (page 465)
a. Define
b. measure
c. compare
d. correct
e. monitor results

4. What is a c-chart used for? (page 474)
a. is used to monitor the central tendency of a process
b. is used to monitor the proportion of defectives in a process
c. is used to monitor the number of defects per units
d. is used to monitor probability within defects per unit
e. both c and d

5. What are some typical inspection points? (page 460)
a. during raw material and parts purchasing
b. after products are finished
c. before a costly operation
d. before an irreversible and covering process
e. all of the above

There are three phases of quality assurance. They rank from the least progressive to the most progressive.
1) The first is "acceptance sampling." This is when there is inspection before and after production. It is ranked as the least progressive.
2) The second is process control. It is when there is inspection and corrective action during production. Most companies fall under this as it is in the middle.
3) The third is continuous improvement. It is when quality is built into the process. It is the most progressive phase of quality assurance.

Inspection is when you appraise a good or service and compare it to a standard.
Companies decide what to inspect. Some inspect raw materials, finished products, or before certain processes.

There are two types on variability(degree of change):
Random: no specific causes, usually a combination of random small factors.
Assignable: cause can be identified, also known as special cause variation.

Random variability can be plotted on a graph. Related to this is normal distribution, or the bell curve in which you have the mean, or average at the peak of the curve. The amount a value strays from the mean is known as the standard deviation.

Control Charts, or c-charts, plot the values in a control range, and show values as under control or out of control.
Range Charts, or r-charts. are used to monitor process dispersion.
When the number of occurrences per unit of measure can be counted; non- occurences cannot be counted, only in these case you can use the c-chart.
And when observations can be placed into two categories, and, the data consists of multiple samples of several obsercations each you can use p-chart

5 Questions
1. What was considered the least progressive phase of quality assurance?
A. Acceptance Sampling
B. Process Control
C. Continuous Improvement
D. None of the above
E. Both A and C
page 456 (need answer---not on page 456)

2. Inspection is:
A. When you write a report on logistics
B. When you compare different options
C. When you sell all of your inventory
D. When you compare a good or service to a standard
E. Both A and C
page 458, answer is D

3. Random variation has:
A. None predictable factors
B. A combination of small factors.
C. No specific causes
D. Predictable Factors
E. Both C and D
The answer is C. (found on page 463)

4. What shape is associated with the normal distribution:
A. A bell curve
B. A circle
C. An "S" curve
D. A straight line
E. Both C and D

The answer is D. (found on page 465)

5. A Control Chart plots which of the following?
A. Random dispersion
B. Controlled dispersion
C. Values within a range of values
D. Both A and B
E. None of the above
answer C, 468

6. Which is not one of the four commonly used control charts?
a. mean control chart
b. range control chart
c. p-chart
d. c-chart
e. all are commonly used control charts.

The answer is D. ( found on page 468) Im pretty sure this answer is wrong. (c charts can be found on 474)
Need at least 5 answers to pick from
7. SPC is short for:
a. statical periodic congruency
b statistical process control
c statistical progmatic control
d. stimulance process control
e. structural process control

The answer is b. (found on page 463)

There are three phases of quality assurance. They rank from the least progressive to the most progressive.
1) The first is "acceptance sampling." This is when there is inspection before and after production. It is ranked as the least progressive.
2) The second is process control. It is when there is inspection and corrective action during production. Most companies fall under this as it is in the middle.
3) The third is continuous improvement. It is when quality is built into the process. It is the most progressive phase of quality assurance.

Inspection is when you appraise a good or service and compare it to a standard. Inspection is essential to quality control.
Companies decide what to inspect. Some inspect raw materials, finished products, or before certain processes.

There are two types on variability(degree of change):
Random: no specific causes, usually a combination of random small factors.
Assignable: cause can be identified, also known as special cause variation.

Random variability can be plotted on a graph. Related to this is normal distribution, or the bell curve in which you have the mean, or average at the peak of the curve. The amount a value strays from the mean is known as the standard deviation.

Control Charts, or c-charts, plot the values in a control range, and show values as under control or out of control.
Range Charts, or r-charts. are used to monitor process dispersion.

5 Questions
1. What was considered the least progressive phase of quality assurance?
A.Continuous Improvement
B. Process Control
C. Acceptance Sampling
D. Periodic Improvement
E. None of the above
Correct Answer is C, page 463

2. Inspection is to:
A. Write a report on logistics
B. Compare different options
C. Sell all of your inventory
D. Compare a good or service to a standard
E. Track items in stock
Answer is D Page 464

3. Random variation has:
A. Predictable Factors
B. No specific causes
C. A combination of small factors.
D. Both B and C
E. Both A and D
Answer is D Page 465

4. The shape associated with the normal distribution is:
A. A straight line
B. A circle
C. An "S" curve
D. A bell curve
E. 45-degree line
Answer is D, page 455(9th edition)

5. Control Charts plot which of the following?
A. Random dispersion
B. Controlled dispersion
C. Values within a range of values
D. Correlated dispersion
E. None of the above
Answer is C, page 467 (repeat question)

6. Where to inspect in the process?
A. raw materials and purchased parts
B. finished products
C. before a costly operation
D. before a covering process
E.All of the above

Needs an answer and page number.

5 questions
1. Which is not including in the fellowing select about improving process capability:
A. C-chart
B. Simplify
C. Standerize
D. Automate
E. Mistake-proof
(A)

2. Which is one of the attributes generate data that are counted by fellowing select:
A.P-chart
B.R-chart
C.Rrange chart
D.Controal chart
E.X-bar chart
(A)

3. What is using mean about Range Chart:
A. Gaining 20-25 samp​les
B. Resume the process and collect another set of observation on which to base control limits
C. Setting up and Starting the control limits
D. Computing appropriate sample statistics
E. All above
(E)

4. When can we use the C-chart:
A. When observations can be placed into two categories.
B. When the data consists of multiple samples of several observations each
C. When a process is not centered at its target, or nominal value
D. When the number of occurrences per unit of measure can be counted; non- occurrences cannot be counted, only in these case.
E. None of above
(D)

5. What is including in the steps required for effective control by the following select:
A. Define
B. Monitor
C. Compare
D. Evaluate
E. All above
(E)

Process Capability (480)

Once the stability of a process has been established, it is necessary to determine if the process is capable of producing output that is within an acceptable range. Three commonly used terms are:
Specification: Established by engineering design or customer requirements. They indicate a range of values in which individual units of output must fall in order to be acceptable.
Control limits: Statistical limits that reflect the extent to which sample statistics, such as means and ranges, can vary due to randomness alone.
Process variability: Reflects the natural or inherent variability in a process. It is measured in terms of the process standard deviation.
Control limits: Based on sampling variability, and sampling variability is function or process variability. However, there is no link between specifications and either control limits and process variability.
Process Capability: The inherent variability of process output relative to the variation allowed by the design specification.



In any business industry, quality control is an important function. It assures that processes are working in an acceptable manner. If an output does not meet a certain standard, then corrective action is taken. Quality control is often monitored through acceptance sampling, which involves inspecting previously produced items. Quality control is measured through statistical process control (SPC). Statistical process control (SPC), which involves control charts for variables and attributes. For variables, a mean control chart (x-bar) and range control charts (r-charts) are used. For attributes, a p-chart or c-chart are used to monitor defective items. Run tests are also conducted in quality control to test for patterns in a sequence.
1. Type II error is also known as:
a. Producer’s risk
b. Consumer’s risk
c. Manufacturer’s risk
d. None of the above
Answer: b) consumer’s risk (pg. 467)

2. A c-chart is only used when observations can be placed in 2 categories
(T/F). False, Pg. 472

3. Which of the following is NOT a run test?
a. Cycles
b. Trend
c. Bias
d. No dispersion
Answer: d) no dispersion, pg. 476

4. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of improving process capability:
a. Higher warranty costs
b. Fewer inspection
c. Fewer service complaints
d. Higher productivity
Answer: a) higher warranty costs (pg. 484)

5. Which of these people created a theory that states the consequences of poor quality lead to higher costs?
a. Deming
b. Shewhart
c. Taguchi
d. Ohno and Shingo
Answer: c) Taguchi (pg. 484)