Specialization relates with different work that concentrates on some aspect of a product or service. Similarly, it emphasizes the ability to concentrate one's efforts on a type of work and thereby becoming proficient in it. Examples of specialization include college professors teaching certain courses, medical doctors working in a specific field, and bakers who specialize in wedding cakes. The advantages of specialized assembly line workers are high productivity and relatively low unit costs. Consequently, these lower-level jobs are often times described as monotonous which results in turnover and absenteeism. However, some workers who are not capable of handling jobs with greater scopes prefer low-level jobs that have limited requirements and responsibility.

Job Design/Specialization
This chapter explains the two basic approaches to job design and the advantages and disadvantages of specialization. The most important topic is the purpose of methods analysis and how these methodical studies are performed. Job Design is the act of specifying the contents and methods of jobs. Current practices in job design contain elements of two basic schools of thought, efficiency and satisfaction of wants and needs. Specialization describes jobs that have a very narrow scope. The amount of knowledge, or training required of a specialist, and the complexity of the work, suggest that such individuals choose such work because they are fully interrogated in the work flow of the product or service.

1.) Time standards derived from a firm's historical time data is:
A.) Predetermined time standards
B.) Standard elemental times
C.) Post-determined time standards
D.) Time measurement standards
E.) None of the above
Answer: B. page 344

2. Which is NOT a behavioral approach to job design?
a. job enrichment
b. job rotation
c. job enlargement
d. increased use of mechanization
e. job improvement
Answer: e pg.314

3. Which of these are helpful in visualizing the portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy?
a. micromotion study
b. work machine chart
c. flow process chart
d. stopwatch time study
e. work measurement
Answer: b pg.320

4. Which is NOT a technique used in motion study?
a. charts
b. micromotion study
c. decision making
d. analysis of therbligs
e. motion study principles
Answer: c pg. 337

5. What reflects quality and productivity results?
a. depth skills
b. specialized skills
c. horizontal skills
d. vertical skills
e. none of above
Answer: A pg. 342

6. What is NOT an advantage of specialization in management?
a. High productivity
b. High costs
c. Simplified training
d. Low costs
e. None of the above
Answer: B pg. 328

7. Concerning labor, what is NOT a disadvantage of specialization?
a. Limited opportunities for advancement
b. Little control over work
c. Little mental effort needed
d. Monotonous work
e. Little opportunity for self-fulfillment
Answer: C pg. 328

8. Which is a general guideline that supervisors use to select a job to study?
a. Have a high labor content
b. Are done frequently
c. Are unsafe, tiring, unpleasant, and/or noisy
d. Are designated as problems
e. All of the above
Answer: E pg 333

9. Which is NOT a source for method analysis?
a. Changes in tools and equipment
b. Changes in product design or introduction of new products.
c. Environmental factors
d. Changes in materials or procedures
e. Government regulations or contractual agreements
Answer: C pg 332

10. Which of the following are reasons why people choose to work?
a. Self actualization
b. Status
c. Sense of purpose and accomplishment
d. Compensation
e. All of the above
Answer: E pg: 329